December 7, 2022

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry Awards Molecular Construction by ‘Click’ – 10/05/2022 – Science

The 2022 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Carolyn Berdozzi, Morton Meldel and Barry Sharples for developing a unique tool for creating molecules. Scientists are responsible for studies called “click” chemistry and bio-orthogonal chemistry.

Barry Sharples wins second Nobel Prize in Chemistry Another honor in 2001 For his work with chiral catalysis reactions. He joins Marie Curie (laureate in physics in 1903 and chemistry in 1911), Linus Pauling (nobel prize in chemistry in 1954 and Nobel Peace Prize in 1962) and Frederick Sanger (1958, 1980).

Berdozzi is the 8th woman to win the Chemistry Prize.

The name given to “click” chemistry reflects its ease of use: a way to create molecules from fast chemical reactions and at the same time manage to avoid unwanted byproducts. A good way to imagine this type of chemistry is to think of chemical bonds, aka bonds — hence the “click” — that allow you to connect blocks of particles, creating more and more complex molecules. Sharples began studying the area about 20 years ago.

In general, this type of chemistry can be compared to simple furniture that people buy to assemble at home. All the parts and tools are available, and the instruction manual is easy for anyone to follow—almost always, at least.

Sounds simple, but the problem is identifying the chemical compounds that do the job precisely. That’s where the contributions of Berdozzi, Meldahl and some more works by Sharpless come in.

With the potential for refined control over molecular construction, the door opens to drug development, DNA sequencing, and new materials.

And the applications don’t stop there. From “click” chemistry, to being able to place “flags” on biological molecules – without harming them, of course – researchers can monitor the activity of the human body’s operating systems and attack specific targets. lumps..

The winners were announced Wednesday morning at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, Sweden. The awarded researchers will share a prize of 10 million Swedish kroner, equivalent to US$ 900,000 or about R$ 4.7 million at current exchange rates. In addition, each of them receives a medal and diploma with Nobel’s face on it.

The crown jewel

After starting work with “click” chemistry from university, Meltahl Copenhagenin Denmark, and Sharpless of Scripps Research Institute in the US, each independently and at about the same time, managed to discover the current crown jewel of this type of reaction: the copper-catalyzed azido/alkyne cycloaddition.

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Meldel, in particular, discovered the power of this reaction almost by accident. On a typical day, when performing a typical reaction using copper ions, one component reacts with the wrong side of another molecule, leading to a product called a triazole.

The triazole is cyclic and very stable and unreactive. Attempts to create triazoles (from the junction of alkynes and an azide ion) had not been successful until the time when Meltahl and Sharples mastered the technique. The secret lies in the copper ion’s control of the process.

In other words, researchers now have in their hands the necessary tool for different applications of the idea of ​​”click” reactions.

The instruction manual for assembly is relatively simple—for a chemist, at least. In theory, all you have to do is put an alkyne (also called an alkyne) on one and an azide on the other to connect the two molecules. Add copper ions and “click”. The connection is made.

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The use of “click” chemistry in live cell operations was not ideal given the presence of copper ions, so some similar possibilities began to be explored.

At the same time as Bertozzi, Meldall, and Sharples, he worked with glycans, complex carbohydrates that normally reside on the surface of proteins and cells. They are important for the role they play in biological processes, such as when viruses infect cells.

From Bertozzi’s work emerges the idea of ​​bio-orthogonal chemistry, reactions that can occur within organisms without affecting the organism, something essential, without being affected by the model in which it exists.

Bertozzi created a molecule in which he combined a sugar with an azide, an arrangement that could be absorbed and processed by cells. The resulting expression is the addition of azide to the glycan. However, for “click”, the alkyne is still missing, the use of which, in this case, cannot depend on the copper ion.

Perusing the scientific literature, Bertozzi found that if the alkyne was forced to assume ring form, the reaction with the azide would occur in a manner similar to what occurs in the presence of copper ions. A new form of “click” was coming.

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In a cyclic alkyne, elements can be added to help map cells, for example. The researcher tested the idea with the glycans she was studying and made them light up.

Ideas developed by Meldall, Sharples and Berdozzi are already working.

In the researcher’s case, for example, studies with glycans on the surface of tumor cells show that these structures “protect” the tumor from our immune system. Bertozzi’s research group then developed, using “CLICK” and bio-orthogonal chemicals, a biological drug capable of stopping the activity of glycans on the surface of tumor cells. The drug is already being tested in cancer patients.

How a Nobel Prize Winner is Chosen

A Nobel Prize It began with the death of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel (1833-1896). In his last will and testament, in 1895, Nobel wrote that he would use his fortune to build a prize. The chemist’s family reluctantly accepted the idea. The first prize was awarded only in 1901.

Chemistry was the most important science for Nobel’s work, the inventor of dynamite and responsible for the development of synthetic rubber and leather. The chemist registered 355 patents in his 63-year career.

The process of selecting the winner of the chemistry section begins the year before the award. In September, the Nobel Committee in Chemistry sends out invitations (about 3,000) to nominate deserving names for the tribute. Answers will be sent by January 31st.

Members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences may recommend; Members of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry and Physics; Nobel Laureates in Physics and Chemistry; professors of chemistry in universities and technical institutes in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Norway, and at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm; Professors in similar positions in at least six (but usually hundreds) universities elected by the Academy of Sciences, with the aim of ensuring an adequate distribution across continents and regions of knowledge; and other scientists whom the Academy deems fit to receive invitations.

Self nominations will not be accepted.

Then begins the process of analyzing the hundreds of names mentioned, consulting with experts and creating reports to narrow down the selection. Finally, in October, the Academy, by majority vote, decides who will receive the recognition.

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A recent history of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Last year, the Benjamin List and David received the prize from the Max-Planck Institute in Germany Macmillan, Princeton University, USA. The scientists were honored for developing a unique and powerful tool for synthesizing organic molecules known as asymmetric organocatalysis.

In 2020, or The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is 100% female, courtesy of Emmanuel Charpentier from the Max Planck Institute (Germany) and Jennifer Doudna from the University of California, Berkeley (USA). Researchers were instrumental in opening the door to the possibility of rewriting life’s code through gene editing. You may have heard of the technique used for: Crispr-Cas9.

Of the 189 recipients of the award in history, only eight women have been recognized so far.

In 2019, the Lithium-ion battery development John B. Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino were awarded the Nobel in this area.

By Take evolution to the test tubesIn 2018, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Francis H. Arnold, George B. of America. Smith and Gregory B. of England. presented to Winter.

M 2017, Electron cryomicroscopy research, a process that freezes molecules in the middle of biochemical processes — like a photograph of life — Nobel commemorated. The laureates are Jacques Dubosset of the University of Lausanne, Joachim Franck of Columbia University and Richard Henderson of the University of Cambridge.

In addition to the 2021 award, research on catalysis was recently awarded. In 2001, researchers William S. Knowles, Ryoji Noyori and K. Barry Sharpless was awarded the 2021 prize for his studies of catalytic reactions involving chiral molecules capable of producing hypothetical products such as those cited in the winning papers.

Research already presented throughout history includes the discovery and work of the chemical elements radium and polonium (Marie Curie, 1911) and research on chemical bonds (Linus Pauling, 1954).

Agenda Nobel

Nobel Prize for Literature – Thursday (6)

Nobel Peace Prize – Silver (7)

Nobel Prize in Economics – Monday (10)

Follow live updates of winners Official Award Website E no youtube profile Do the Nobel.